As each December, when the year is almost over, the weekly nonprofit edited by the American Association for the Advancement of Science presents the most important scientific news of the season just ended. And finding the Higgs boson in first place, giving it the distinctive Discovery of the Year 2012.
The discovery took place on 4 July 2012 amid great expectations scientific. And, although it has a high degree of reliability, is still pending further definition to clarify whether it is the Higgs boson field, or other type of boson. Precisely CERN today announced that the final announcement is expected to take place in March 2013. From its discovery depends much knowledge about who we are and what we’re made.
This particle was proposed by Peter Higgs as a hypothesis for over 40 years. To do this, the British physicist did not need anything more than a pencil and paper. But its content is key to explain how other elementary particles-those that are not composed of smaller particles, such as electrons or quarks get their mass .
Actually, if this is the expected Higgs boson would confirm what experts call the spontaneous symmetry breaking . To operate the Standard Model, the physical laws must satisfy a symmetry that allows the order in nature and still very basic principles. But it has a problem: that’s true for the bodies should not have mass and that is in flagrant contradiction with what we observe in the universe.
For this reason, Peter Higgs predicted the existence of a mechanism that can be described as an invisible field present in every corner of the universe . That is precisely the field causes the particles have mass flowing through it. The Higgs boson is the fundamental component of the field, in the same way that the photon is the fundamental component of the light. It is the intermediary present everywhere in the universe that makes the particles have mass, cement allowing other elementary particles like quarks organize and form bodies like electrons, neutrons and protons that make up the atom, and thus the matter.
Several decades after the brilliant physicist proposal UK, the international community spent 4,000 million euros to build a laboratory capable of generating particles enough energy to produce the same form bosons that emerged shortly after the Big Bang that formed the Universe. Thus was born the CERN in Geneva, as a major scientific and technical facility whose main objective was to find the most sought particle physics. The Higgs boson was the last missing piece to show to validate the Standard Model that is based on particle physics. And it appears that already found.