Scientists have identified a family of stem cells that can generate neurons, responsible for abstract thinking and creativity. The cells were found in embryos of mice, they formed in the upper layers of the cerebral cortex. In humans, the same region of the brain responsible for abstract thinking, planning for the future and solving pressing problems. Previously it was thought that all the neurons of the cortex, the upper and lower layers arise from the same stem cells, called radial glial cells (RGCs). However, new studies are prepared to argue with the statement.
Experts from the Scripps Research Institute , California, proved that the upper layer of neurons develops from other stem cells. Advanced functions such as consciousness, thought and creativity, requires a lot of different types of cells, neurons, and the main question is, how it is produced by a variety of cells of the cerebral cortex. This study argues that this diversity exists in the precursor cells. In mammals, the cerebral cortex has a structure resembling an onion, ie consists of layers of different thickness.
The thinnest inner layers of neurons connected to the brain stem and spinal cord and regulate basic functions such as breathing and movement. The thicker upper layers are located close to the outer surface of the brain and contain neurons that integrate information from the senses. Higher functions of thought are in the upper layers, which in evolutionary terms is a “modern” part of the brain. Cultivation of stem cells in vitro may shed light on the treatment of diseases such as autism and schizophrenia.